DATENBRILLE IN FEUERWEHRMASKE GIBT (ÜBER-)LEBENSWICHTIGE INFOS

Man kann ihnen nicht oft genug danken, den Feuerwehrmännern: Unter Einsatz ihres Lebens wagen sie sich zum Beispiel in verrauchte Gebäude, um Menschenleben zu retten. Nun soll ihre Orientierung vor Ort, der Selbstschutz in Bezug auf die eigene Konstitution sowie auch die Informationen durch die Einsatzleitung durch AR sicherer gemacht werden. Forschende der Fakultät für Elektrotechnik an der Westsächsischen Hochschule Zwickau (WHZ) entwickelten hierfür eigens eine Feuerwehrmaske mit integrierter Datenbrille und Raumlokalisierungselektronik. Dadurch wird die Navigation in brennenden und verrauchten Räumen erheblich vereinfacht.

…Rettungskräfte können sich somit in dunklen oder verrauchten Gebäuden mit schlechter Sicht bewegen und bekommen ins Sichtfeld wichtige Informationen wie ein Gebäude- und Fluchtplan, Anweisungen vom Truppführer oder eigene Vitalwerte angezeigt“, erklärt WHZ-Professor Dr. Rigo Herold die neue Entwicklung.

Für die Navigation werden in der Feuerwehr-Schutzkleidung drei leichtgewichtige Ultrabreitband (UWB)-Funkknoten integriert. So können mittels einer neuartigen Kombination aus Ankunftswinkel- und Distanzbestimmung drei notwendige, individuelle Signale analysiert werden. Hieraus ist wiederum eine relative Position berechenbar. Gleichzeitig steht durch die geplante ad-hoc Lokalisierung auch die relative Position der Rettungskräfte untereinander zur Verfügung. Dies bringt nicht nur in der Ausbildung, sondern vor allem auch im realen Einsatzszenario einen erheblichen Vorteil.

ROBUSTE TECHNIK FÜR RAUE UMGEBUNG

Die Anwendung unter diesen extremen Bedingungen stellt sehr hohe Anforderungen an die Technik, besonders aber auch an die komplette Optik. So sollten beispielsweise Elektronik und Stromversorgung in die Atemschutzmaske integriert werden, ohne den Träger dabei im Sichtfeld zu beeinträchtigen. Nach außen hin musste die gesamte Technik der Maske zudem luftdicht integriert sein. Zu guter Letzt ging es auch darum, das System hitzebeständig und mechanisch sehr stabil zu konstruieren. Glücklicherweise konnten die Forschenden der WHZ bei ihrer Entwicklung auf das Know-how von vorherigen Forschungsprojekten zu Datenbrillen, unter anderem in Stahlwerken sowie bei Druckereien, zurückgreifen.

Die Datenanzeige ist direkt in die Atemschutzmaske integriert ©WHZ

Zunächst wird das System im Brandhaus des Feuerwehr-Instituts für Feuerwehr und Rettungstechnologie (IFR) – einer Ausbildungs- und Forschungseinrichtung für die Feuerwehr der Stadt Dortmund –, getestet. Da in dem IFR realistische Szenarien wie brennende Räume nachgestellt werden können, soll auch die Ad-hoc-Lokalisierung in dem Gebäude installiert werden. So kann unter realitätsnahen Bedingungen die Kombination aus Feuerwehrmaske mit Datenbrille und UWB-Empfänger evaluiert und optimiert werden.

STANDARDS FÜR GEBÄUDETECHNIK

Basierend auf den Ergebnissen sollen dann Standards geschaffen werden, um neue Gebäude neben der Brandmeldetechnik auch mit einer Navigationstechnik für Rettungskräfte auszustatten. Somit können die bisher verwendeten Laufkarten durch digitale Gebäudepläne ersetzt werden, da diese dann automatisch im System der Rettungskräfte eingespielt werden. Die Generierung der Daten kann zukünftig über Projektierungs- und Building Information Modeling (BIM) Systeme automatisiert erfolgen.

Das neuartige System entsteht im Rahmen des vom Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung (BMBF) geförderten Verbundprojektes CELIDON und wird innerhalb einer Forschungskooperation mit der Stadt Dortmund, dem Feuerwehr–Institut für Feuerwehr- und Rettungstechnologie (IFR) und der TU Dortmund – Lehrstuhl für Kommunikationsnetze entwickelt. Die TU Dortmund wird innerhalb des Projektes an der Integration einer drahtlosen Funklokalisierung für eine sichere und effiziente Ausbildung im Brandhaus der Feuerwehr der Stadt Dortmund arbeiten.

SICHERHEIT FÜR RETTUNGSKRÄFTE

Menschenrettung in stark verrauchten Gebäuden ist stets mit Gefahren verbunden. Eine davon ist beispielsweise, dass die Rettungskräfte den Kontakt zueinander verlieren. Trotz umfangreicher Ausbildung und regelmäßigem Training, ereignen sich immer wieder Unfälle mit tödlichem Ausgang für die Einsatzkräfte. Denn in vielen Einsätzen müssen die Rettungskräfte Gebäude betreten, in denen die Orientierung durch Rauchbildung stark erschwert oder unmöglich ist. Dann wird in der Regel ein standardisiertes, eingeübtes Suchverfahren nach hilfsbedürftigen Menschen durchgeführt. Hierfür führen Trupps aus je zwei Rettungskräften die Suche nach Betroffenen taktil durch. Doch leider treten immer wieder Situationen auf, in denen sich die Trupp-Partner separieren. Oft fällt ihnen der Kontaktverlust dabei nicht sofort auf. Und schließlich tun die besonderen Bedingungen im Einsatz – wie nicht vorhandener Sichtkontakt, Atemmaske, Stress, Panik und eventuell störende Geräusche –, ihr übriges. Sie erschweren ein Wiederauffinden des Partners.

Die neu entwickelte Atemschutzmaske mit AR-Funktion könnte bei diesem lebensbedrohlichen Problem Abhilfe schaffen. Ein erster Prototyp des Systems wird von Rigo Herold, Professor für Digitale Systeme und seinem Team auf der Hannover Messe in Halle 2, Stand A38 (Forschung für die Zukunft) ausgestellt.

Bild oben: ©WHZ

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