FORSCHUNGSPROJEKT „GRÜNELUNGE“ ERFORSCHT DIE RESILIENZ VON BÄUMEN IM URBANEN RAUM

Extreme Wetterverhältnisse machen besonders unseren Bäumen in der Stadt zu schaffen. Denn laut Beobachtungen sind sie, da sie nicht in einer natürlichen, sondern gebauten Umgebung wachsen, anfälliger für die Folgen globaler Erwärmung. Dazu gehören bekanntermaßen Hitzewellen, Dürren, Stürme oder Starkregen. Somit könnten natürliche Prozesse (ökophysiologische Prozesse) wie etwa das Verdunsten von Wasser über die Blätter, also die Transpiration wie auch die Photosynthese, insbesondere bei heimischen Baumarten künftig an Intensität verlieren.

Doch nicht nur das:

Wachsende und immer dichter bebaute Städte, Umweltverschmutzung sowie mechanische und chemische Schäden gefährden die Existenz und Vitalität städtischer Wälder“, erklärt Dr. Somidh Saha, Forstwissenschaftler am Institut für Technikfolgenabschätzung und Systemanalyse (ITAS) des KIT.

Saha ist Leiter des kürzlich gestarteten dreijährigen Forschungsprojekts „Inter- und transdisziplinäre Entwicklung von Strategien zur Erhöhung der Resilienz von Bäumen in wachsenden Städten und urbanen Regionen (GrüneLunge)“.

ÖKOSYSTEMDIENSTLEISTUNGEN DER BÄUME

Die Bäume sind derzeit einem extremen Stress ausgesetzt, die die Gesundheit sowie auch die physiologische Aktivität der Pflanzen beeinflusst. Und das, obwohl wir sie doch so dringend benötigen – auch und gerade in der Stadt. Denn hier machen die Pflanzen nicht nur aus optischen Gründen Sinn. So kühlen sie beispielsweise während Hitzeperioden durch die Abgabe von Feuchtigkeit effektiv ihre Umgebung ab. Zudem bieten sie gleichzeitig den notwendigen Schatten. Auch filtern Bäume die verschmutzte Luft, indem sie CO2 und Abgaspartikel binden. All dies sind Ökosystemdienstleistungen, die angesichts des Klimawandels eine immer größere Bedeutung erhalten. Doch die rasch zunehmende Urbanisierung der Städte wirkt dagegen. Also muss gezielt an dem Erhalt der Grünflächen sowie einer gesunden Pflanzenpopulation in der Stadt gearbeitet werden.

Dies ist auch für die Forschenden der Stadt Karlsruhe der Anlass, im Rahmen des KIT-Projekts „Quartier Zukunft – Labor Stadt“, an kurz- und langfristigen Strategien zur Erhöhung der Resilienz von Bäumen zu forschen. Zumal gerade ihre Region als ‚besonders anfällig‘ für die Folgen des Klimawandels eingestuft wird.

Die Wissenschaftler arbeiten daran, die Pflege und Bewirtschaftung städtischen Grüns an die neuen Herausforderungen anzupassen. Ihr Idealziel ist es, die oben genannten Ökodienstleistung der Bäume sogar noch zu verbessern.

BEGRÜNUNGSKONZEPTE SOLLEN UMGESETZT WERDEN

„In den kommenden drei Jahren wollen wir besser verstehen, wie sich das Wachstum und die Ökosystemleistungen von Stadtbäumen und Stadtwäldern unter dem Einfluss von Luftverschmutzung und Dürre verändern“, so Saha. Messkampagnen in Karlsruhe, der Nachbarstadt Rheinstetten sowie andernorts sollen hier Aufschluss geben. Darauf aufbauend, wollen die Forschenden untersuchen, wie sich die Hitzebelastung in urbanen Räumen mithilfe von Bäumen am effektivsten verringern lässt. Der Blick richtet sich hier zum einen auf die Auswahl von Baumarten, die aufgrund ihrer spezifischen Eigenschaften besonders geeignet sind. Zum anderen wollen die Forscher größere Zusammenhänge betrachten. Hier sollen zugleich naturgemäße wie wirtschaftliche Begrünungskonzepte für Stadtteile, Parks, Straßenzüge und städtische Waldstücke entwickeln werden. Zum Abschluss des Projekts möchten die Wissenschaftler die gewonnenen Erkenntnisse in Karlsruhe und Rheinstetten auch umsetzen.

ÖFFENTLICHKEIT SENSIBILISIEREN

Für ihre Arbeiten koordiniert das ITAS-Team ein interdisziplinär besetztes Projektkonsortium. Partner sind das Zentrum für Medizin-Meteorologische Forschung des Deutschen Wetterdienstes (DWD) und die Forstliche Versuchs- und Forschungsanstalt Baden-Württemberg (FVA) in Freiburg sowie die Städte Karlsruhe (Gartenbauamt und Forstamt) und Rheinstetten (Bauamt). Das Projekt „GrüneLunge“ wird vom Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung (BMBF) mit insgesamt 1,4 Millionen Euro gefördert.

Begleitet wird die Forschung von verschiedenen transdisziplinären Aktivitäten im oben schon erwähnten Reallabor Quartier Zukunft – Labor Stadt. So arbeiten die Forschenden mit Bürgerinnen und Bürgern sowie Verantwortlichen in Karlsruhe und Rheinstetten zusammen. Denn das Projekt „GrüneLunge“ zielt darauf ab, einen Dialog und Wissenstransfer zwischen Bürgern, Förstern, Wissenschaftlern und politischen Entscheidungsträgern aus Karlsruhe und Rheinstetten anzustoßen. Somit sollen alle Beteiligten für die wesentliche Bedeutung einer grünen Stadt und deren gesunde Pflanzenpopulation sensibilisiert werden. Die Ergebnisse des Projekts ‚GrüneLunge‘ sind definitv auch für viele weitere Städe dieser Welt interessant.

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