STATT CHEMIE: BIOLOGISCHER PFLANZENSCHUTZ FÜR MEERESALGEN

Algen sind gesund – zumindest in Maßen. Und dank ihrer vielfältigen Eigenschaften werden sie manchmal sogar als Rohstoff des 21. Jahrhunderts bezeichnet. Immerhin stammt jedes zweite Sauerstoffmolekül das wir zum Atmen brauchen aus der Photosynthese der Algen. Algen könnten also als Klimaretter dienen. Außerdem wird über ihre Nutzungsmöglichkeiten als Energiequelle sowie Kläranlage geforscht. Zuguterletzt werden Algen in der Medizin, Kosmetikindustrie sowie als Nahrungsergänzungsmittel eingesetzt. Grund genug also, die Algenzucht weltweit zu intensivieren – aber auch über sie zu forschen.

ANBAU VON MONOKULTUREN BIRGT RISIKO

Ähnlich wie Landpflanzen sind auch Meeresalgen anfällig für Krankheiten und Parasiten. Somit birgt der Anbau von Pflanzen in Monokulturen ein erhöhtes Risiko. Allein durch diverse Aufwuchsorganismen – beispielsweise Seepocken oder epiphytische Algen – ist der Seetang bedroht. Denn diese besiedeln die Oberflächen der Tange, vermindern dadurch ihr Wachstum und somit ihren Marktwert. So hat die jüngste Intensivierung des Algenanbaus in größeren Monokulturen schon zu einigen katastrophalen Krankheitsausbrüchen und hohen wirtschaftlichen Verlusten geführt. Um die Algen zu schützen müssen also wirksame Gegenmaßnahmen entwickelt werden.

Doch die Anwendung von Bioziden, wie in der Landwirtschaft üblich, ist für Algenkulturen kaum geeignet. Denn die Wirkstoffe werden zu schnell durch Wellen und Strömungen im Meer verdünnt. Das macht den Einsatz solch giftiger Verbindungen einerseits unwirtschaftlich, zugleich gefährdet er die Küstenumwelt.

AKTIVIERUNG DER NATÜRLICHEN EIGENABWEHR

Wissenschaftlern des GEOMAR Helmholtz-Zentrums für Ozeanforschung Kiel in Kooperation mit ihren Kollegen von der Ocean University of China in Qingdao gelang es nun erstmals, den Seetang ohne Chemie wirksam vor bestimmten Krankheitserregern zu schützen. Geforscht wurde an der Saccharina-Aquakultur: Und zwar in China – das übrigens traditionell als größter Produzent von Lebensmittelalgen gilt –, an den Braunalgen der Art „Saccharina japonica“. In Deutschland untersuchten die Forscher den in Europa heimischen Zuckertang „Saccharina latissima“.

Algenanbau
Algenernte auf einer Algenfarm in Rongcheng (China) © Florian Weinberger/GEOMAR

Die deutsch-chinesischen Wissenschaftler testeten dabei in Feldversuchen auf kommerziellen Algenfarmen die gezielte Aktivierung der natürlichen Eigenabwehr von Seetang. Hierfür behandelten sie die Algen in verschiedenen Zeitintervallen mit einem speziellen Saccharid (Oligoalginat), das einen Hauptbestandteil der Trockenmasse von Saccharina und verwandter Algen bildet. Unter natürlichen Bedingungen wird dieses ungiftige Saccharid bei Angriffen von Krankheitserregern aus dem befallenen Algengewebe freigesetzt und dann von benachbarten, gesunden Algenzellen mit großer Empfindlichkeit erkannt. Diese Erkennung löst dann sofort – innerhalb von Minuten – Abwehrreaktionen aus.

Die Forscherteams simulierten durch wöchentliche Kurzzeit-Behandlungen der Algen mit Seewasser, welches künstlich gewonnenes Oligoalginat enthielt, Angriffe von Krankheitserregern. Sowohl bei der deutschen als auch bei der chinesischen Algenart konnten sie positive Effekte erzielen. Ihr Ergebnis: Der Verlust von Algenkeimlingen war messbar geringer, der Befall erntereifer Saccharina mit parasitischen Mikroalgen ging deutlich zurück und auch die Dichte von Bakterien auf der Algenoberfläche war reduziert.

ZUNAHME VON AUFWUCHSORGANISMEN ALS UNERWÜNSCHTER NEBENEFFEKT

Doch kam es gleichzeitig zu einer Zunahme des Befalls der Algen mit Seepocken und anderen Aufwuchsorganismen. Wie der Leiter des Projektes, Dr. Florian Weinberger vom GEOMAR, erklärte, steht dieser unerwünschte Nebeneffekt wahrscheinlich direkt mit der Reduktion des bakteriellen Bewuchses auf der Algenoberfläche in Zusammenhang: Die Besiedlung von Algen und anderen lebenden und nichtlebenden Oberflächen im Meer durch Aufwuchsorganismen wird maßgeblich durch Bakterien beeinflusst, von denen einige Abwehrstoffe gegen Larven und Algensporen produzieren. „Wenn es uns eines Tages, gelingt Signalstoffe zu finden, die selektivere Abwehrreaktionen in den Algen auslösen, so dass nicht alle, sondern nur die unerwünschten Mikroorganismen eliminiert werden, kann die Methode noch deutlich hilfreicher sein. Aber schon heute lässt sie es zu, Verluste von Keimlingen zu reduzieren. Bei diesen spielt Aufwuchs nämlich noch keine Rolle,“ so Dr. Weinberger.

Die Studie wurde vom deutschen Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung (BMBF) gefördert und mit den Partnerunternehmen Coastal Research and Management in Kiel und Weihai Changqing Ocean Science & Technology Co. Ltd. in Rongcheng durchgeführt. Die Ergebnisse der Studie, die übrigens vom GEOMAR Helmholtz-Zentrum für Ozeanforschung Kiel koordiniert wurde, sind jetzt in der internationalen Fachzeitschrift Journal of Applied Phycology erschienen.

Foto oben: Algenfarm in Rongcheng (China) © Florian Weinberger/GEOMAR

Dieser Artikel erschien am 10.2.2019 in der Innovation Origins.

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